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Learn Diminished Chords, Melodies and Motives, and Secondary Dominants in Music Theory Comprehensive Complete: Part 10, 11, & 12





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Music Theory Comprehensive Complete: Part 10, 11, & 12 - A Complete Guide to Mastering Music Theory




Introduction




Music theory is the study of how music works. It is a system of rules and concepts that explain how music is composed, performed, and perceived. Music theory can help you understand, appreciate, and create music of any style, genre, or era.




MusicTheoryComprehensiveCompletePart101112TUTORiAL


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Learning music theory can have many benefits for musicians and music lovers alike. Some of the benefits are:



  • It can improve your musical skills, such as sight-reading, ear training, improvisation, composition, and analysis.



  • It can enhance your musical expression, creativity, and communication.



  • It can broaden your musical knowledge, culture, and history.



  • It can deepen your musical enjoyment, appreciation, and criticism.



If you want to learn music theory in a comprehensive, complete, and fun way, you should check out this course: Music Theory Comprehensive Complete: Part 10, 11, & 12. This course is designed for anyone who wants to master music theory from the basics to the advanced topics. It is suitable for beginners, intermediate, and advanced learners, as well as for students, teachers, composers, performers, and enthusiasts.


This course is divided into three parts: Part 10: Diminished!, Part 11: Melody & Motives, and Part 12: Secondary Dominants. Each part covers a specific topic in music theory with clear explanations, examples, exercises, quizzes, and projects. By the end of this course, you will be able to:



  • Identify, use, and analyze diminished chords in music.



  • Identify, manipulate, and analyze melodies and motives in music.



  • Identify, use, and analyze secondary dominants in music.



Are you ready to take your music theory skills to the next level? Then let's get started with Part 10: Diminished!


Part 10: Diminished!




What are diminished chords and how to identify them?




A diminished chord is a type of chord that has a very tense and unstable sound. It is formed by stacking two or more minor thirds on top of each other. For example, if we stack two minor thirds from C, we get C-Eb-Gb. This is a diminished triad. If we stack another minor third from Gb, we get C-Eb-Gb-Bbb. This is a diminished seventh chord.


There are two types of diminished chords: whole diminished and half diminished. A whole diminished chord is a diminished seventh chord that has four notes that are all a minor third apart. For example, C-Eb-Gb-Bbb is a whole diminished chord. A half diminished chord is a diminished seventh chord that has three notes that are a minor third apart and one note that is a major third apart. For example, C-Eb-Gb-Bb is a half diminished chord.


To identify a diminished chord, you need to look at the intervals between the notes. If all the intervals are minor thirds, then it is a whole diminished chord. If one of the intervals is a major third and the rest are minor thirds, then it is a half diminished chord. You can also use the notation and symbols for diminished chords to help you identify them.


How to use diminished chords in music?




Diminished chords are very useful in music because they can create a lot of tension and drama. They can also add variety and interest to your chord progressions and harmonies. Here are some ways to use diminished chords in music:



  • The function and resolution of diminished chords: Diminished chords are usually used as dominant chords, meaning that they lead to another chord, usually the tonic or the subdominant. For example, in the key of C major, a C diminished chord can resolve to either C major or F major. The resolution of a diminished chord is usually by moving one or more notes by a half step up or down. For example, C-Eb-Gb-Bbb can resolve to C-E-G-C by moving Eb up to E and Bbb down to C.



  • The tendency tones and unequal fifths in diminished chords: Diminished chords have two notes that are called tendency tones, meaning that they have a strong pull to another note. These are the leading tone and the seventh of the chord. For example, in C-Eb-Gb-Bbb, the leading tone is Bbb and the seventh is Gb. The leading tone tends to move up by a half step to the tonic, while the seventh tends to move down by a half step to the third of the next chord. For example, Bbb can move up to C and Gb can move down to F. Another characteristic of diminished chords is that they have unequal fifths, meaning that they have two different types of fifths: a diminished fifth and an augmented fifth. For example, in C-Eb-Gb-Bbb, the diminished fifth is between C and Gb, while the augmented fifth is between Eb and Bbb. These fifths are very unstable and dissonant, and they tend to resolve to perfect fifths or major thirds.



  • The expansion of tonic with leading tones and viiº6 chords: Diminished chords can also be used to expand the tonic area by using leading tones and viiº6 chords. A leading tone is a note that is a half step below the tonic, and it creates a strong expectation for the tonic to follow. For example, in the key of C major, B is the leading tone and it leads to C. A viiº6 chord is a diminished chord that has the leading tone as its root, and it is in first inversion, meaning that the third of the chord is in the bass. For example, in the key of C major, B-D-F-Ab is a viiº6 chord, and it has D in the bass. A viiº6 chord can be used to expand the tonic by preceding it with another chord that has the same bass note. For example, Dm-D-F-A can be followed by B-D-F-Ab, which can then resolve to C-E-G-C.



  • The harmonization with viiº7 chords: Diminished chords can also be used to harmonize melodies that have chromatic notes or non-chord tones. A viiº7 chord is a diminished seventh chord that has the leading tone as its root, and it can be used to harmonize any note that is a half step below a diatonic note. For example, in the key of C major, B-D-F-Ab can be used to harmonize any note that is a half step below C, D, E, F, G, A, or B.



  • The mystical properties of the whole diminished chord: The whole diminished chord is a very special type of diminished chord because it has a symmetrical structure and it can be used in many different ways. The whole diminished chord has four notes that are all a minor third apart, which means that it can be inverted four times and still have the same sound. For example, C-Eb-Gb-Bbb can be inverted to Eb-Gb-Bbb-C, Gb-Bbb-C-Eb, or Bbb-C-Eb-Gb, and they all sound like the same chord. This also means that there are only three different whole diminished chords in total: C-Eb-Gb-Bbb (or any of its inversions), Db-F-Ab-Cb (or any of its inversions), and D-F#-A-C (or any of its inversions). The whole diminished chord can be used as a substitute for any dominant seventh chord that has a flat ninth. For example, G7b9 (G-B-D-F-Ab) can be replaced by B-D-F-Ab (or any of its inversions). The whole diminished chord can also be used as a modulation device because it can lead to any key that is a minor third away from its root. For example, C-Eb-Gb-Bbb can lead to Eb major (by resolving to Eb-G-Bb), Gb major (by resolving to Gb-Bb-Db), A minor (by resolving to A-C-E), or C minor ( by resolving to C-Eb-G). The whole diminished chord can also be used as a chromatic embellishment or a passing chord between two diatonic chords. For example, C-E-G can be followed by C#-E-G# (or any of its inversions), which can then resolve to D-F#-A.



How to analyze music with diminished chords?




Diminished chords can add a lot of complexity and richness to music, but they can also make it more challenging to analyze. To analyze music with diminished chords, you need to pay attention to the context, the function, and the voice leading of the chords. Here are some tips to help you analyze music with diminished chords:



  • The pivot chords and 4/2 chords as tonic expansion: Sometimes, a diminished chord can be used as a pivot chord, meaning that it can belong to more than one key. For example, in the key of C major, B-D-F-Ab can be a viiº7 chord that resolves to C major, or it can be a iiº7 chord that modulates to Ab major. To identify a pivot chord, you need to look at the chords before and after the diminished chord and see if they belong to different keys. Another way to use a diminished chord as a tonic expansion is to use a 4/2 chord, which is a seventh chord in second inversion, meaning that the fifth of the chord is in the bass. For example, in the key of C major, G-B-D-F-C is a 4/2 chord that has the same notes as a G7 chord, but with C in the bass. A 4/2 chord can be used to prolong the tonic by having the same bass note as the tonic chord.



  • The neighboring and passing 4/2 chords: Diminished chords can also be used as neighboring or passing chords, meaning that they move by step between two diatonic chords. For example, in the key of C major, C-E-G can be followed by D-F-Ab-C (or any of its inversions), which is a neighboring 4/2 chord that moves up by step from C-E-G and then back down to C-E-G. Similarly, C-E-G can be followed by B-D-F-Ab (or any of its inversions), which is a passing 4/2 chord that moves down by step from C-E-G to A-C-E. To identify a neighboring or passing 4/2 chord, you need to look at the bass motion and see if it moves by step between two diatonic chords.



  • The analysis projects of Bach, Beethoven, Mozart, and some modern music with diminished chords: One of the best ways to learn how to analyze music with diminished chords is to study some examples from different composers and genres. In this course, you will have the opportunity to analyze some pieces by Bach, Beethoven, Mozart, and some modern music that use diminished chords in various ways. You will learn how to identify the function, resolution, voice leading, modulation, and embellishment of diminished chords in these pieces. You will also learn how to apply your analysis skills to your own compositions and performances.




Part 11: Melody & Motives




What are melodies and motives and how to identify them?




A melody is a sequence of musical notes that form a coherent and expressive musical idea. A melody can be sung, played, or written, and it can have various characteristics, such as pitch, rhythm, contour, range, mode, tonality, etc. A melody can be the main focus of a musical piece, or it can be accompanied by other musical elements, such as harmony, texture, timbre, etc.


A motive is a short musical fragment that is repeated or varied throughout a melody or a musical piece. A motive can be a single note, a group of notes, a chord, a rhythm, or any combination of these. A motive can have various functions, such as creating unity, contrast, development, variation, etc. A motive can also be the basis of a larger musical structure, such as a theme, a phrase, a section, or a form.


To identify a melody and its motives, you need to listen to or look at the musical score and see if you can find any patterns or repetitions. You can also use some tools to help you label and find the melodies and motives in music. Some of these tools are:



  • The solfege system: This is a system of syllables that represent the pitches of a scale. For example, in the major scale, the syllables are do-re-mi-fa-sol-la-ti-do. You can use the solfege system to sing or write the melodies and motives in music.



  • The interval system: This is a system of numbers that represent the distance between two pitches. For example, C to E is a major third, which is 4 semitones or 4 half steps. You can use the interval system to measure or compare the melodies and motives in music.



  • The letter system: This is a system of letters that represent the names of the pitches. For example, C-D-E-F-G-A-B-C. You can use the letter system to spell or read the melodies and motives in music.



  • The Roman numeral system: This is a system of symbols that represent the chords and their functions in a key. For example, in the key of C major, C-E-G is I (the tonic chord), G-B-D is V (the dominant chord), etc. You can use the Roman numeral system to harmonize or analyze the melodies and motives in music.




How to manipulate melodies and motives in music?




Melodies and motives can be manipulated in music to create variety, interest, and development. There are many techniques to manipulate melodies and motives in music, such as augmentation, diminution, inversion, extension, truncation, etc. Here are some examples of these techniques:



  • Augmentation: This is a technique of increasing the duration of the notes in a melody or a motive. For example, if we have a motive that is C-D-E-F (quarter notes), we can augment it by making it C-D-E-F (half notes).



  • Diminution: This is a technique of decreasing the duration of the notes in a melody or a motive. For example, if we have a motive that is C-D-E-F (quarter notes), we can diminish it by making it C-D-E-F (eighth notes).



  • Inversion: This is a technique of reversing the direction of the intervals in a melody or a motive. For example, if we have a motive that is C-D-E-F (ascending by step), we can invert it by making it C-Bb-Ab-G (descending by step).



  • Extension: This is a technique of adding more notes to the end of a melody or a motive. For example, if we have a motive that is C-D-E-F, we can extend it by adding G-A-B-C.



  • Truncation: This is a technique of removing some notes from the end of a melody or a motive. For example, if we have a motive that is C-D-E-F, we can truncate it by removing F.



These are just some of the basic techniques to manipulate melodies and motives in music. There are many more advanced techniques, such as retrograde, retrograde inversion, transposition, interval alteration, contour alteration, rhythm alteration, etc. You can use these techniques to create new melodies and motives from existing ones, or to vary and develop your musical ideas.



How to analyze music with melodies and motives?




Melodies and motives can also be analyzed in music to understand the structure, form, and style of a musical piece. To analyze music with melodies and motives, you need to pay attention to the organization, repetition, variation, and development of the musical ideas. Here are some tips to help you analyze music with melodies and motives:



  • The musical sentences and periods in melodies: A musical sentence is a type of phrase that has a clear beginning, middle, and end. It usually consists of two or four measures, and it has a basic structure of presentation, continuation, and cadence. For example, C-D-E-F-G-A-B-C is a musical sentence that presents the motive C-D-E-F in the first two measures, continues it with some variation in the next two measures, and ends with a cadence on C. A musical period is a type of phrase that has two parts: an antecedent and a consequent. The antecedent is the first part that ends with a weak or incomplete cadence, while the consequent is the second part that ends with a strong or complete cadence. For example, C-D-E-F-G-A-B-C C-D-E-F-G-G-G-C is a musical period that has an antecedent that ends with a half cadence on G, and a consequent that ends with an authentic cadence on C.



  • The antecedents and consequents in phrases: Antecedents and consequents are not only found in musical periods, but also in other types of phrases. Antecedents and consequents are also called question and answer phrases, because they create a sense of dialogue or call and response in music. For example, C-D-E-F-G-A-B-C G-F-E-D-C-B-A-G is a pair of antecedent and consequent phrases that have a question and answer relationship. The antecedent phrase asks a question by rising up the scale, while the consequent phrase answers it by falling down the scale.



  • The performance and hypermeter of phrases: Phrases can also be affected by the performance and hypermeter of music. Performance refers to how the music is played or sung, such as the tempo, dynamics, articulation, expression, etc. Performance can influence how the phrases are perceived by the listener, such as creating contrast, emphasis, or mood. Hypermeter refers to how the music is organized into larger units of meter, such as groups of two, three, or four measures. Hypermeter can influence how the phrases are structured and related to each other, such as creating symmetry, asymmetry, or hierarchy.



  • The phrase rhythm and analysis of Bach's melodies: Phrase rhythm is the combination of phrase length, accentuation, grouping, and cadence in music. Phrase rhythm can reveal the form and style of a musical piece, as well as the composer's intention and creativity. One of the masters of phrase rhythm is Johann Sebastian Bach, who composed many beautiful and complex melodies in his works. In this course, you will have the opportunity to analyze some of Bach's melodies and see how he used phrase rhythm to create musical interest and variety.




Part 12: Secondary Dominants




What are secondary dominants and how to identify them?




A secondary dominant is a type of chord that is not the primary dominant of the key, but the dominant of another chord in the key. For example, in the key of C major, G-B-D-F is the primary dominant (V7) of C-E-G (I), but D-F#-A-C is the secondary dominant (V7/V) of G-B-D (V). A secondary dominant can create more tension and movement in a chord progression, as well as modulate to other keys.


To identify a secondary dominant, you need to look at the chord quality, the root motion, and the resolution of the chord. A secondary dominant is usually a major or a dominant seventh chord that has a chromatic note that is not in the key. For example, in the key of C major, D-F#-A-C has F#, which is not in the key. A secondary dominant also moves by a perfect fifth or a half step down to its resolution chord. For example, D-F#-A-C moves down by a perfect fifth to G-B-D. A secondary dominant also resolves to a diatonic chord that is not the tonic. For example, D-F#-A-C resolves to G-B-D, which is not the tonic of C major.


How to use secondary dominants in music?




Secondary dominants are very useful in music because they can add more color, variety, and modulation to your chord progressions and harmonies. Here are some ways to use secondary dominants in music:



  • The tonicization and modulation with secondary dominants: Secondary dominants can be used to tonicize or modulate to other chords or keys in music. Tonicization means to make another chord sound like the tonic temporarily, while modulation means to change the key permanently. For example, in the key of C major, D-F#-A-C can be used to tonicize G-B-D for a few measures, or it can be used to modulate to G major for a longer section.



The chain of secondary dominants: Secondary dominants can also be used in a chain or a sequence, meaning that they can lead to each other before resolving to a diatonic chord. Fo


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